Presidential Legacy's

F.D.R. - showman - good retailer and wholesaler - first 100 days (Honeymoon) - New Deal - fireside chats - greatly increased the size (and role) of the federal government - tried to "pack" the Supreme Court - elected four times

Harry S Truman - retailer - atomic bomb decision - Cold War begins - launched Marshall Plan - created NSC and CIA - de-segregated the military with an executive order - sent U.S. forces to Korea without a declaration of war - fired MacArthur - "the buck stops here"

Dwight David "Ike Eisenhower - clearly defined chain of command - retailer - governed with a "hidden hand" - able to control with strong willed and egotistical subordinates - held "rambling and incoherent" press conferences - tried to diffuse Cold War tensions - brinkmanship - employing his powers as chief executive he ordered the National Guard to enforce school de-segregation - U-2 incident - warned about the growing influence of the "military industrial complex" - warned against getting involved in a land war in Asia

J.F.K. - improvisor - good wholesaler - poor retailer - tried to surround himself with the "best and brightest" of advisors - cold warrior - increased defence spending - first to use TV as an effective political tool - charismatic "wholesaler"- not effective as a "retail" legislator - Bay of Pigs invasion - Cuban Missile Crisis - negotiated first nuclear test ban treaty - sent first U.S. ground forces to Vietnam - reluctant to push for civil rights - announced the goal of landing a man on the moon within ten years

L.B.J. - won by a landslide in 1964 - aggresive retailer - poor wholesaler - lacked charisma on TV - employed the "treatment" to push through legislation - the Great Society - Civil Rights Act of 1964 - Voting Rights Act of 1965 - the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution greatly increased the President's war making powers - "escalated" involvement in the Vietnam War - race riots - student demonstrations - almost lost 1968 New Hampshire primary - 1968 Tet Offensive led to his decision not to seek re-election

Richard M. Nixon - retailer - paranoid - effective in foreign affairs - detente - SALT treaty - promoted a liberal legislative aganda - imposed wage and price controls - expanded the Vietnam War to Cambodia and Laos - visited China and U.S.S.R. - ended U.S. involvement in Vietnam in early 1973 - Watergate scandal - U.S. v. Nixon - used CIA to block an FBI investigation - War Powers Resolution (1973) passed over his veto - Budget Impoundment and Control Act (1974) passed over his veto - first President to resign (1974)

Gerald R. Ford - retailer - former minority leader in the House of Representatives - chosen because of his honest and "clean" image - his executive order granting Nixon Executive Clemency (Pardon) probably cost him re-election - issued an executive order forbidding the assasination of foreign heads of state - had a "clumsy" image - first target of SNL -

Jimmy Carter - recruited Democratic "losers" in the 1974 elections for his own campaign - poor retailer and wholesaler - delivered honest and sincere speeches - weak cabinet - "micro-manager" - governed as an "outsider" - didn't work well with Congress - negotiated the Camp David Accords - plagued by Iran Hostage Crisis - high inflation - pulled U.S. out of 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow following Soviet invasion of Afghanistan

Ronald Reagan - the "great communicator" - good retailer and wholesaler - known as the "teflon" President" - charmed his political opponents - set "general goals" and delegated considerable powers and responsibilities to his staff and Cabinet - pursued "incompatible" economic policies (Reaganomics) - cut taxes and increased spending, particularly for the military - dramatically increased the national debt - initiated "star wars" program - - survived assasination attempt enhancing his "heroic" image ("I can take a bullet") -reduction of government regulation led to the Savings and Loan Crisis - Iran-Contra Crisis - visits Moscow

George H.W. Bush - cautious pragmatist - poor wholesaler - highly experienced and qualified, particulary in foreign affairs - poor public speaking skills - competent "hands-on" administrator - expressed no clear "vision" or specific political agenda - "read my lips" pledge hurt his chances of re-election - gender gap - achieved the highest public approval rating of any president following the 1991 Gulf War against Iraq - passed th Americans With Disabilities Act (1990) - portrayed by James Carville as "out of touch" with the lives of ordinary Americans in the 1992 election

Bill Clinton - charismatic - excellent communication skills - practiced a loose and informal process for determinining policies - adopted the policy of "triangulation" after the Republicans gained control of both houses of Congress in 1994 - he played a major role in Northern Ireland and Middle East peace processes - bombed Serbia - tainted by sex scandals but managed to increase his overall popularity even after he was impeached

George W. Bush - operates the White House like a corporation - stresses punctuality - benefits from experienced advisors and Cabinet members - "War Hawks" such as Vice President Dick Cheney and Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld are particularly influential - Bush conducts his cabinet meetings with a forceful down to earth style of leadership - focuses on a few simply defined goals - known for "lowballing" - tries to develop personal relationships with key members of Congress and foreign leaders - enjoys a very high public approval rating since September 11 by presenting himself as a wartime leader - campaigned successfully for Republican congressional and Senate candidates in the 2002 midterm election